Hawthorn or Crataegus Hawthorn of Washington State

Crataegus douglasii

( or Black Hawthorn)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Crataegus douglasii is a North American species of hawthorn known by the common names black hawthorn and Douglas’ thornapple. It is named after David Douglas, who collected seed from the plant during his botanical explorations.

This thorny shrub is native to northern and western North America, where it grows in varied habitats from forest to scrubland. It is most abundant in the Pacific Northwest.
Crataegus douglasii

Scientific classification:
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Crataegus
Section: Douglasia
Series: Douglasianae
Species: C. douglasii
Binomial name:Crataegus douglasii

Crataegus (/krəˈtiːɡəs/), (from the Greek kratos strength and akis sharp, referring to the thorns of some species[4]) commonly called hawthorn, thornapple, May-tree, whitethorn, or hawberry, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the family Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Europe, Asia and North America. The name “hawthorn” was originally applied to the species native to northern Europe, especially the common hawthorn C. monogyna, and the unmodified name is often so used in Britain and Ireland. The name is now also applied to the entire genus and to the related Asian genus Rhaphiolepis. The name haw, originally an Old English term for hedge, applies to the fruit.

Description:

Crataegus species are shrubs or small trees, mostly growing to 5–15 metres (16–49 ft) tall,[7] with small pome fruit and (usually) thorny branches. The most common type of bark is smooth grey in young individuals, developing shallow longitudinal fissures with narrow ridges in older trees. The thorns are small sharp-tipped branches that arise either from other branches or from the trunk, and are typically 1–3 cm long (recorded as up to 11.5 centimetres (4.5 in) in one case). The leaves grow spirally arranged on long shoots, and in clusters on spur shoots on the branches or twigs. The leaves of most species have lobed or serrate margins and are somewhat variable in shape. The fruit, sometimes known as a “haw”, is berry-like but structurally a pome containing from 1 to 5 pyrenes that resemble the “stones” of plums, peaches, etc., which are drupaceous fruit in the same subfamily.

Uses:

Culinary use:

The “haws” or fruits of the common hawthorn, C. monogyna, are edible but the flavour has been compared to over-ripe apples. In the United Kingdom, they are sometimes used to make a jelly or homemade wine. The leaves are edible and, if picked in spring when still young, are tender enough to be used in salads. The young leaves and flower buds, which are also edible, are known as “bread and cheese” in rural England.

The fruits of the species Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn) are tart, bright red, and resemble small crabapple fruits. They are used to make many kinds of Chinese snacks, including haw flakes and tanghulu (糖葫芦). The fruits, which are called shānzhā (山楂) in Chinese, are also used to produce jams, jellies, juices, alcoholic beverages, and other drink. In South Korea, a liquor called sansachun (산사춘) is made from the fruits.

The fruits of Crataegus mexicana are known in Mexico as tejocotes and are eaten raw, cooked, or in jam during the winter months. They are stuffed in the piñatas broken during the traditional pre-Christmas celebration known as Las Posadas. They are also cooked with other fruits to prepare a Christmas punch. The mixture of tejocote paste, sugar, and chili powder produces a popular Mexican candy called rielitos, which is manufactured by several brands.

In the southern United States, fruits of three native species are collectively known as mayhaws and are made into jellies which are considered a great delicacy. The Kutenai people of northwestern North America used red and black hawthorn fruit for food.

On Manitoulin Island in Canada, some red-fruited species are called hawberries. They are common there thanks to the island’s alkaline soil. During the pioneer days, white settlers ate these fruits during the winter as the only remaining food supply. People born on the island are now called “haweaters”. In Iran, the fruits of Crataegus (including Crataegus azarolus var. aronia, as well as other species) are known as zalzalak and are eaten raw as a snack, or made into a jam known by the same name.

Research:

A 2008 Cochrane Collaboration meta-analysis of previous studies concluded that there is evidence of “a significant benefit in symptom control and physiologic outcomes” for an extract of hawthorn in treating chronic heart failure. A 2010 review concluded that “Crataegus [hawthorn] preparations hold significant potential as a useful remedy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD)”. The review indicated the need for further study of the best dosages and concluded that although “many different theoretical interactions between Crataegus and orthodox medications have been postulated … none have [yet] been substantiated.

Several earlier pilot studies assessed the ability of hawthorn to help improve exercise tolerance in people with NYHA class II cardiac insufficiency compared to placebo. One experiment, at (300 mg/day) for 4 to 8 weeks, found no difference from placebo. The second study, including 78 subjects (600 mg/day) for 8 weeks, found “significant improvement in exercise tolerance” and lower blood pressure and heart rate during exercise. The third, including 32 subjects (900 mg/day) for 8 weeks, found improved exercise tolerance as well as a reduction in the “incidence and severity of symptoms such as dyspnea” and fatigue decreased by approximately 50%.

In the 2004 HERB-CHF (Hawthorn Extract Randomized Blinded Chronic HF Study) clinical study, 120 patients took 450 mg of hawthorn extract twice daily for six months in combination with standard therapy and a standardized exercise program. “No effects of hawthorn were seen on either quality-of-life endpoint (Tables 1 and 2), or when adjusted for LVEF”.

One research program, consisting of 1,011 patients taking one tablet (standardized to 84.3 mg procyanidin) twice daily for 24 weeks, found “improvements in clinical symptoms (such as fatigue, palpitations, and exercise dyspnea), performance and exercise tolerance test, and ejection fraction”.

Phytochemicals found in hawthorn include tannins, flavonoids, oligomeric proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids.

Traditional medicine:

Several species of hawthorn have been used in traditional medicine. The products used are often derived from C. monogyna, C. laevigata, or related Crataegus species, “collectively known as hawthorn”, not necessarily distinguishing between these species. The dried fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida (called shān zhā in Chinese) are used in traditional Chinese medicine, primarily as a digestive aid. A closely related species, Crataegus cuneata (Japanese hawthorn, called sanzashi in Japanese) is used in a similar manner. Other species (especially Crataegus laevigata) are used in herbal medicine where the plant is believed to strengthen cardiovascular function.

The Kutenai people of northwestern North America used black hawthorn fruit (Kutenai language: kaǂa; approximate pronunciation: kasha) for food, and red hawthorn fruit (Kutenai language: ǂupǂi; approximate pronunciation: shupshi) in traditional medicine.

Side effects:

Overdose can cause cardiac arrhythmia and dangerously low blood pressure. Milder side effects include nausea and sedation. Patients taking digoxin should avoid taking hawthorn.


Bibliographic details for “Crataegus douglasii”
Page name: Crataegus douglasii
Author: Wikipedia contributors
Publisher: Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
Date of last revision: 24 April 2016 23:19 UTC
Date retrieved: 31 October 2017 20:49 UTC
Permanent link: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crataegus_douglasii&oldid=716962671
Primary contributors: Revision history statistics
Page Version ID: 716962671

Bibliographic details for “Crataegus”
Page name: Crataegus
Author: Wikipedia contributors
Publisher: Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
Date of last revision: 15 April 2017 18:54 UTC
Date retrieved: 10 May 2017 22:24 UTC
Permanent link: “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crataegus&oldid=775568889
Primary contributors: Revision history statistics
Page Version ID: 775568889